### Alpha Functions

We introduce 𝛼-functions, providing piecewise linear approximation to given data as the difference of two convex functions. The parameter 𝛼 controls the shape of a paraboloid that is probing the data and may be used to filter out noise in the data. The use of convex functions enables tools for efficient approximation to the data, adding robustness to outliers, and dealing with gradient information. It also allows using the approach in higher dimension. We show that 𝛼-functions can be efficiently computed and demonstrate their versatility at the example of surface reconstruction from noisy surface samples.

### Conforming Weighted Delaunay Triangulations

Given a set of points together with a set of simplices we show how to compute weights associated with the points such that the weighted Delaunay triangulation of the point set contains the simplices, if possible. For a given triangulated surface, this process provides a tetrahedral mesh conforming to the triangulation, i.e. solves the problem of meshing the triangulated surface without inserting additional vertices. The restriction to weighted Delaunay triangulations ensures that the orthogonal dual mesh is embedded, facilitating common geometry processing tasks.

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### Harmonic Triangulations

We introduce the notion of harmonic triangulations: a harmonic triangulation simultaneously minimizes the Dirichlet energy of all piecewise linear functions. By a famous result of Rippa, Delaunay triangulations are the harmonic triangulations of planar point sets. We prove by explicit counterexample that in 3D a harmonic triangulation does not exist in general. However, we show that bistellar flips are harmonic: if they decrease Dirichlet energy for one set of function values, they do so for all. This observation gives rise to the notion of locally harmonic triangulations. We demonstrate that locally harmonic triangulations can be efficiently computed, and efficiently reduce sliver tetrahedra. The notion of harmonic triangulation also gives rise to a scalar measure of the quality of a triangulation, which can be used to prioritize flips and optimize the position of vertices. Tetrahedral meshes generated by optimizing this function generally show better quality than Delaunay-based optimization techniques.

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### Diffusion Diagrams: Voronoi Cells and Centroids from Diffusion

We define Voronoi cells and centroids based on heat diffusion. These heat cells and heat centroids coincide with the common definitions in Euclidean spaces. On curved surfaces they compare favorably with definitions based on geodesics: they are smooth and can be computed in a stable way with a single linear solve. We analyze the numerics of this approach and can show that diffusion diagrams converge quadratically against the smooth case under mesh refinement, which is better than other common discretization of distance measures in curved spaces.

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