CHI’19: I Can See What You Think: The Mental Image Revealed by Gaze Tracking
Humans involuntarily move their eyes when retrieving an image from memory. This motion is often similar to actually observing the image. We suggest to exploit this behavior as a new modality in human computer interaction, using the motion of the eyes as a descriptor of the image. Interaction requires the user’s eyes to be tracked but no voluntary physical activity. We perform a controlled experiment and develop matching techniques using machine learning to investigate if images can be discriminated based on the gaze patterns recorded while users merely think about image. Our results indicate that image retrieval is possible with an accuracy significantly above chance. We also show that this result generalizes to images not used during training of the classifier and extends to uncontrolled settings in a realistic scenario.
Siggraph Asia 2018: Tracking the Gaze on Objects in 3D: How do People Really Look at the Bunny?
We provide the first large dataset of human fixations on physical 3D objects presented in varying viewing conditions and made of different materials. Our experimental setup is carefully designed to allow for accurate calibration and measurement. We estimate a mapping from the pair of pupil positions to 3D coordinates in space and register the presented shape with the eye tracking setup. By modeling the fixated positions on 3D shapes as a probability distribution, we analysis the similarities among different conditions. The resulting data indicates that salient features depend on the viewing direction. Stable features across different viewing directions seem to be connected to semantically meaningful parts. We also show that it is possible to estimate the gaze density maps from view dependent data. The dataset provides the necessary ground truth data for computational models of human perception in 3D.
CG&A Special Issue: Measuring Visual Salience of 3D Printed Objects
We investigate human viewing behavior on physical realizations of 3D objects. Using an eye tracker with scene camera and fiducial markers we are able to gather fixations on the surface of the presented stimuli. This data is used to validate assumptions regarding visual saliency so far only experimentally analyzed using flat stimuli. We provide a way to compare fixation sequences from different subjects as well as a model for generating test sequences of fixations unrelated to the stimuli. This way we can show that human observers agree in their fixations for the same object under similar viewing conditions – as expected based on similar results for flat stimuli. We also develop a simple procedure to validate computational models for visual saliency of 3D objects and use it to show that popular models of mesh salience based on the center surround patterns fail to predict fixations.